what is branding?
formally…a proprietary trademark for a specific product or service.
conceptually…a “contract” from the company to its customers; a promise of specific benefits, quality, and value. a relationship.
Some Examples of Positioning Statements
Apple Computers offers… the best personal computing experience to students, educators, creative professionals and consumers around the world through its innovative hardware, software and Internet offerings.
IBM… for businesses who need computers, IBM is the company you can trust for all your need,
A positioning statement defines the value proposition of product to the target market.定位陈述定义了产品对目标市场的价值主张。
Target Market ( for whom)
Point of Difference ( reason to buy)
Points of Parity ( Frame of reference)
Positioning is implemented through all elements of the marketing mix: product, price, promotion, place.定位通过市场营销组合中的所有元素来执行。
Should focus on a few key benefits( USP )
Position must be defensible.定位必须是能防御的。
Positioning requires making choices.定位要求作出选择。
The Role of Positioning
Strategic & Technological Vision —>Positioning—>Messaging( tells the story)
Product Development ( Provides customer benefits)
Point of Parity ( POP )
Associations that are not unique to the brand; they are shared with other brands.
Category POPs: associations consumer views as necessary to be considered credible
-Ex: Grocery store must have certain products (e.g., milk, eggs) to be truly considered a ‘grocery store’
Competitive POPs: associations designed to negate competitors’ point of difference
– All toothpastes prevent cavities
Point of Difference ( POD )
Strong, favorable, unique brand associations
Similar to notion of USP (unique selling proposition)
SCA: sustainable competitive advantage
(achieve an advantage in the marketplace for a prolonged period of time)
May involve: performance attributes, benefits, imagery associations.