《瑜伽经》初探

Based on 商务印书馆版本 and 豆小兔https://www.douban.com/group/topic/28477305/

1.1 Now the discipline of yoga.
现在,讲解瑜伽。

1.2 Yoga is the cessation of mind.
瑜伽是抑制心的活动

1.3 Then the witness is established in itself.
然后内在建立起静观的境界

1.4 In the other states there is identification with the modifications of the mind.
在其他状态(非静观)状态下,是思维与思维的纠结。?

1.5 The modifications of the mind are five. They can be either a source of anguish or of non-anguish.
思维五种状态下变动,它们可以是痛苦烦闷的根源,也可以是快乐和兴奋的根源。?

 

1.6 They are right knowledge, wrong knowledge, imagination, sleep and memory.
思维是根据:正确的知识、错误的知识、想象、睡眠和记忆 五种状态下不停变动。
1.7 Right knowledge has three sources: direct cognition, inference and the words of the awakened ones.
正确的知识有三个来源:直接的认知、推论和开悟者的话。
1.8 Wrong knowledge is a false conception not corresponding to the thing as it is.
错误的知识是一个虚假的观念,它不等于事实本然的样子。
1.9 An image conjured up by words without any substance behind it is vikalpa –imagination.
一个被文字所唤起,而在它背后没有任何实质的意象就是想象。
1.10 The modification of the mind which is based on the absence of any content in it is sleep.
没有任何内容物的头脑形式就是睡眠。
注:日常生活中头脑总会聚焦于一些对象,而深睡眠中头脑不聚焦于任何东西。
1.11 Memory is the calling up of past experiences.
记忆就是过去经验的唤起。
1.12 Their cessation is brought about by persistent inner effort and nonattachment.
它们的静止是藉着持续的内在努力(abhyasa)和不执着而发生的。
1.13 Of these two, abhyasa the inner practice is the effort for being firmly established in oneself.
在这两者里面,阿伯亚沙——内在的修行,就是牢固地定于本身的努力。
注:abhyasa,有选择的行动,以期在任何情况下能保持头脑的平息。
1.14 It becomes firmly grounded on being continued for a long time, without interruption and with reverent devotion.
它变成牢固地奠基于自己的本性,持续很长的时间,没有中断,而且带着虔诚的奉献。
注:虔诚、坚持的练习使这一(停止头脑的)努力牢牢扎根。
1.15 The first state of vairagya, desirelessness – cessation from self-indulgence in the thirst for sensuous pleasures, with conscious effort.
拜拉格亚(vairagya)——无欲的第一种状态:用有意识的努力去停止自我放纵在对感官欢乐的渴求。
1.16 The last state of vairagya, desirelessness – cessation of all desiring by knowing the innermost nature of purusha, the supreme self.
拜拉格亚——无欲的最终状态:藉着知道“至高无上的自己”(purusha,真我/神我)的最内在本性而停止一切欲求。
1.17 Samprajnata samadhi is the samadhi that is accompanied by reasoning, reflection, bliss and a sense of pure being.
Samprajnata三摩地是伴随着推理、反省、喜乐和一种纯粹存在的感觉的三摩地。
注:Samprajnata samadhi,也有译为有想三摩地(有想三昧)、有缘依三摩地、有知觉神定。是一种仍有对象的专注。
此三摩地中存在的四者,按逐次精微的顺序排列。四者梵文为:
vitarka,粗想或理性,专注于物质对象、行为、咒音、(显)意识流等;
vichara,细想,专注对物质微细(地水火风空)、能量、头脑本身等;
ananda,更精微,喜乐;
asmita,自我存在感。
1.18 In asamprajnata samadhi there is a cessation of all mental activity, and the mind only retains unmanifested impressions.
Asamprajnata三摩地中,所有的心理活动都停止,头脑只是保留未显现的印象。
注:Asamprajnata samadhi,也有译为无想三摩地、无想三昧、无缘依三摩地、无知觉神定。是没有对象的专注。
1.19 Videhas and prakriti-layas attain asamprajnata samadhi because they ceased to identify themselves with their bodies in their previous life. They take rebirth because seeds
of desire remained.
维德哈(Videhas)和普拉克里提拉亚(Pakriti-layas)达成Asamprajnata三摩地。因为他们在前世已经停止跟他们的身体认同。他们再度出生,因为仍有欲望的种子。
注:Vedehas和pakriti-layas是已经了解他不是身体的人。
1.20 Others who attain asamprajnata samadhi attain through faith, effort, recollection, concentration and discrimination.
其他达到Asamprajnata三摩地的人是透过信仰、(全然的)努力、回忆、集中精神和明辩(智慧)而达到的。
注:“信仰”并非盲信(迷信),而是了解的信任。而“回忆”并非对往事的记忆,而是持续地记得、觉知。“集中精神”即专注之冥想。
1.21 Success is nearest to those whose efforts are intense and sincere.
成功最接近那些愿望强烈而且很真诚的人。
1.22 The chances of success vary according to the degree of effort.
按照努力程度的不同,成功的机会也会有所不同。
1.23 Success is also attained by those who surrender to god.
那些臣服于神的人也能够达到成功。
1.24 God is the supreme ruler. He is an individual unit of divine consciousness. He is untouched by the afflictions of life, action and its result.
神是至高无上的,他是一个神性意识个别的单位。他不会被生活、行动、以及它的结果所产生出来的痛苦所碰触到。
1.25 In god the seed is developed to its highest extent.
在神里面,那个(全知的)种子被发展到它最高的程度。
1.26 Being beyond the limits of time he is the master of masters.
超越时间,他是师父中的师父。
1.27 He is known as aum.
他以AUM为人所知。
注:即OM。
1.28 Repeat and meditate on aum.
重复颂念和静心冥想AUM。
1.29 Repeating and meditating on aum brings about the disappearance of all obstacles and an awakening of a new consciousness.
重复颂念和静心冥想AUM会使所有的障碍都消失。并且有一种新的意识会醒悟过来。
注:新的意识,即自我认知/觉知。
1.30 Disease, languor, doubt, carelessness, laziness, sensuality, delusion, impotency and instability are the obstacles that distract the mind.
疾病、无精打采、怀疑、不关心、懒惰、肉欲、妄想、无能和不稳定等是分心(停止思维)的障碍。
1.31 Anguish, despair, tremors and irregular breathing are the symptoms of a distracted mind.
痛苦、失望、颤抖、和不规则的呼吸是分心的特征。
1.32 To remove these, meditate on one principle.
要除去这些,必须静心冥想一个法则。
注:亦有译为“要除去这些干扰,必须练习专注于一点。”具体措施即1.33-1.39中所描述。
1.33 The mind becomes tranquil by cultivating attitudes of friendliness towards the happy, compassion towards the miserable, joy towards the virtuous and indifference towards the evil.
借着培养对快乐的人报以友善的态度,对痛苦的人报以慈悲的态度,对美德的人报以喜悦的态度,对罪恶的人报以漠不关心的态度,头脑就会变平静。
1.34 The mind also becomes tranquil by alternately expelling and retaining the breath.
呼气和憋气交互进行,头脑也可以变平静。
1.35 When meditation produces extraordinary sense perceptions, the mind gains Confidence and this helps perseverance.
当静心产生出特别的感官知觉,头脑会得到自信,这对毅力有帮助。
1.36 Also, meditate on the inner light which is serene and beyond all sorrow.
也可静心冥想内在的光,它是安详的。而且超越所有的忧伤。
1.37 Also meditate on one who has attained desirelessness.
也可静心冥想一个已经达到无欲的人。
1.38 Also, meditate on knowledge that comes during sleep.
也可静心冥想(恳求)获得知识,自然就会得到知识。
注:观照睡眠
1.39 Also, meditate on anything that appeals to you.
也可静心冥想任何想知道(恳求)的事物。
1.40 Thus, the yogi becomes master of all, from the infinitesimal to the infinite.
然后,瑜伽练习者便能知道(使头脑专注于)一切,从无限小到无穷大。
1.41 When the activity of the mind is under control, the mind becomes like pure crystal, reflecting equally, without distortion, the perceiver, the perception and the perceived.
当活跃的思维得到控制,头脑像纯净的水晶,同等、无扭曲地反映知者、知觉与所知。
1.42 Savitarka samadhi is the samadhi in which the yogi is still unable to differentiate between the real knowledge, knowledge based on words and knowledge based on reasoning or sense perceptions, which all remain in the mind in a mixed state.
在Savitarka三摩地中,真知、文字所得、推理或感觉所得的知识混杂在头脑中。
注:Savitarka,是头脑仍有粗想(vitarka),有分辨(逻辑/理性)、有分别(即二元性)。有寻三昧。
1.43 Nirvitarka samadhi is attained when the memory is purified, and the mind is able to see the true nature of things without obstruction.
Nirvitarka三摩地,是记忆(及头脑形式)已净化,然后头脑能无障碍(不带扭曲、转释)地反映事物本身。
注:Nirvitarka是无粗想、无分辩,但仍有分别(二元性)。无寻三昧。
1.44 The explanations given for the samadhis of savitarka and nirvitarka, also explain the higher states of samadhi, but in these higher states of savichara and nirvichara
samadhis, the objects of meditation are more subtle.
以上对Savitarka和Nirvitarka三摩地的解释,同样说明了更高阶段的三摩地Savichara(Savitarka的高级)和Nirvichara(Nirvitarka的高级),其中,冥想的对象更加精微(细想,vichara)。
注:1.42和1.43是有粗想和无粗想,而“有细想Savichara”与“无细想Nirvichara”三摩地道理同前。
Savichara三摩地,亦有译为内省三摩地、有伺三昧。Nirvichara三摩地,有译为无念三摩地、无伺三昧。
1.45 The province of samadhi that is connected with these finer objects extends up to the formless stage of the subtle energies.
(这四种)三摩地的(冥想)范围,延伸极精微能量的无形层面。
1.46 These samadhis that result from meditation on an object are samadhis with seed, and do not give freedom from the cycle of rebirth.
以上,由专注冥想一个对象所得之三摩地,为有种(子)三摩地,且不能脱离轮回。
1.47 On attaining the utmost purity of the nirvichara stage of samadhi, there is a dawning of the spiritual light.
通过到达纯净的Nirvichara三摩地,就有灵性之光的显现。
1.48 In nirvichara samadhi, the consciousness is filled with truth.
在此三摩地中,觉知充满真相。
1.49 In the state of nirvichara samadhi, an object is experienced in its full perspective, because in this state knowledge is gained direct, without the use of the senses.
在此三摩地中,可直接认知对象,而不经由感觉(和理智)。
注:所得知识是对象的直接认识,不混杂推理和其它相关概念。
1.50 The perception gained in nirvichara samadhi transcends all normal perceptions both in extent and intensity
此三摩地所得之认知,在广度和强度上超越一切普通的认知。
注:(有种)三摩地中所得新认知(充满真相),会生成新的习惯(印迹),将原有的习气消退。
1.51 When this controlling of all other controls is transcended, the seedless Samadhi is attained, and with it, freedom from life and death.
当超越以上对控制的控制,就达到了无种(子)三摩地,脱离生死轮回。
注:不执著于从有种三摩中所得的新的认知,则这些新的习惯(印迹)也逐渐消退,即达到无种三摩地。

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